The primary survey is the initial assessment and management of a trauma patient. It is conducted to detect and treat actual or imminent life threats and prevent complications from these injuries. DRSABC is used for basic life support
The secondary survey is performed once the patient has been resuscitated and stabilised. It involves a more thorough head-to-toe examination, and the aim is to detect other significant but not immediately life-threatening injuries. SAMPLE is used for asking a patients history.
Condition comes on quickly and often lasts a short time e.g. heart attack, the flu or an asthma attack.
Not seriously harmful e.g. a cyst or tumour which is non-cancerous (doesn’t spread or invade other tissues). The opposite of this is malignant (cancerous).
Describes something that tends to be severe and become progressively worse e.g. a cyst or tumour which is cancerous (can invade and kill nearby tissue and spread to other parts of the body). The opposite of this is benign (non-cancerous).
Individuals having enough knowledge, understanding, skills and confidence to use health information. This includes computer and numerical literacy and the ability to interpret graphs. It affects people’s ability to engage with self-care, share medical history, navigate the healthcare system, fill in forms, understand probability and risk and evaluate the quality of information online.
Considering all the physical, psychological and social factors potentially impacting a person’s health.
Protecting peoples’ health, wellbeing and human rights, and enabling them to live free from harm, abuse and neglect.
Assesses an action in terms of its consequences or outcomes, i.e., the net benefits and costs to all stakeholders on an individual level. It strives to achieve the greatest good for the greatest number while creating the least amount of harm or preventing the greatest amount of suffering.
Biomedical engineering discipline integrating biology with engineering to create tissues or cellular products outside the body (ex vivo) or to use the gained knowledge to better manage the repair of tissues within the body (in vivo).
Tissue is organizational level between cells and organ and is an ensemble of similar cells and their extracellular matrix from the same organ that carry out a specific function.
Stem cells are cells that can differentiate into other types of cells (multipotent), and can also divide in self-renewal to produce more of the same type of stem cells.
A force is a push or pull upon an object resulting from the object's interaction with another object.
The meniscus is a piece of cartilage that provides a cushion between your femur (thighbone) and tibia (shinbone). There are two menisci in each knee joint.
Anterior – Towards the / The front of body
Posterior – Near the / The back of body
Medial – Towards the midline of the body/ structure
Lateral – Away from the midline of the body/structure
Ipsilateral – On the same side of the body
Contralateral – On the opposite side of the body
Proximal – situated nearer to the centre of the body or the point of attachment to the trunk (Core body)
Distal – Further from the centre of the body or the point of attachment to the trunk (Core body)
Superficial – structures situated or occurring on the skin or immediately beneath it.
Deep – structures closer to the interior center of the body
Flexion – Movement that decreases the angle between articulating bones (Bending an arm or a leg)
Extension – an unbending movement around a joint in a limb that increases the angle between the bones of the limb at the joint. Opposite of Flexion
Hyper – extension: Extension beyond ‘normal’ extension
Superficial – structures situated or occurring on the skin or immediately beneath it.
Deep – structures closer to the interior center of the body.
Abduction – movement away from the midline
Adduction – movement towards the midline
Medial Rotation – Anterior surface rotates towards midline
Lateral Rotation – Anterior surface rotates away from midline
Dorsiflexion – Bending foot upwards
Plantarflexion – Bending floor down
Supination – Forearm turns palm facing upward
Pronation – Forearm turns palm facing downward
This law states that your bones will adapt based on the stress or demands placed on them. When you work your muscles, they put stress on your bones. In response, your bone tissue remodels and becomes stronger.
The design and production of materials, structures, and systems that are modelled based on biological beings and processes.
A measure of elasticity, equal to the ratio between the stress on a material and the strain produced.
An artificial substitute for a missing part, such as an eye, limb, or tooth, used for functional or cosmetic reasons, or both.
The existence of a chemical element in two or more forms, which may differ in the arrangement of atoms in crystalline solids or in the occurrence of molecules that contain different numbers of atoms. Example: Graphite, charcoal, and diamond are all allotropes of carbon.
A molecule, especially a protein, having both hydrophilic and hydrophobic parts and therefore exhibiting both of these behaviours.
The light scattering by particles when light passes through a colloid (e.g gel), or very fine particles like dust or air.
A type of Tyndall effect which occurs when the diameters of atmospheric particulates are similar to the wavelengths of the scattered light.
Crepuscular rays or "God rays" are sunbeams that originate when the sun is below the horizon, during twilight hours.
The scattering of light by particles in a medium, without change in wavelength. It accounts, for example, for the blue colour of the sky, since blue light is scattered slightly more efficiently than red.
The photoelectric effect is the emission of electrons when electromagnetic radiation, such as light, hits a material. Electrons emitted in this manner are called photoelectrons.
Cardiogenic shock is a serious condition that occurs when your heart cannot pump enough blood and oxygen to the brain, kidneys, and other vital organs. Cardiogenic shock is considered a medical emergency and should be treated immediately. The most common cause of cardiogenic shock is a heart attack.
Hypovolemic shock is a life-threatening condition that results when you lose more than 20 percent (one-fifth) of your body's blood or fluid supply. This severe fluid loss makes it impossible for the heart to pump a sufficient amount of blood to your body. Hypovolemic shock can lead to organ failure.
An Anaphylactic shock is a severe and potentially life-threatening reaction to a trigger such as an allergy. It's when when your blood pressure drops so low that your cells (and organs) don't get enough oxygen.
Angina is a type of chest pain caused by reduced blood flow to the heart. Angina is a symptom of coronary artery disease. Angina is often described as squeezing, pressure, heaviness, tightness or pain in your chest. Medicaion for it can inlcude Glyceryl trinitrate (GTN) Spray.
A myocardial infarction (MI), also known as a heart attack, occurs when blood flow decreases or stops to a part of the heart, causing damage to the heart muscle. The most common symptom is chest pain or discomfort which may radiate into the shoulder, arm, back, neck or jaw. It can lead to cardiac arrest (heart stop).
A bluish discoloration. It's where your skin or lips turn blue, usually caused by low oxygen levels in the red blood cells or problems getting oxygenated blood to your body.
Ischemic means that an organ (e.g., the heart) is not getting enough blood and oxygen. Ischemic heart disease, also called coronary heart disease (CHD) or coronary artery disease, is the term given to heart problems caused by narrowed heart (coronary) arteries that supply blood to the heart muscle.
This type of stroke is caused by a blockage in an artery that supplies blood to the brain. The blockage reduces the blood flow and oxygen to the brain, leading to damage or death of brain cells.
Same as a Ischaemic Stroke but unlike a stroke, they only last for a few minutes or hours. However, it can lead to a permanent stroke.
A hemorrhagic stroke is when blood from an artery begins bleeding into the brain. This happens when a weakened blood vessel bursts and bleeds into the surrounding brain. Pressure from the leaked blood damages brains cells, and, as a result, the damaged area is unable to function properly.
While a FAST test is used to identify a stroke, a person can still exhibit properties of a stroke and not be having one, such as if their face is slightly slanted. This could be due to a previous stroke they have had, and that is why it is important to always take the patients history.