General Knowledge: Biomedical Engineering Terms

Home Page Go Back

Types Of Surgeons

  • ENT : Ear, Nose and Throat
  • Breast surgeons: Breast pathology
  • Hepatobiliary surgeons: Liver, bile duct system and pancreas
  • Urologist: Kidneys, ureters, bladder, prostate and urethra
  • Vascular: Blood vessels of the body
  • Neurosurgeon: Cranial disease surgically
  • Maxillofacial: Facial / jaw disease
  • Cardiothoracic: Heart and lungs
  • Gastrointestinal: Oesophagus, stomach and small intestines
  • Orthopaedic: Bones and joints
  • Colorectal: Large bowel and rectum

History of presenting complaint: SOCRATES

  • Site: Where is the pain? Can you point to it?
  • Onset: When did it start?
  • Character: Can you describe the pain?
  • Radiation: Has the pain moved since it first started?
  • Associated symptoms: Any other symptoms?
  • Timing: When does the pain occur?
  • Exacerbating: and relieving factors Anything that makes the pain better/ worse?
  • Severity: On a scale from 1 - 10, rate the pain


Condition comes on quickly and often lasts a short time e.g. heart attack, the flu or an asthma attack.


The right of patients to make decisions about their healthcare.


Not seriously harmful e.g. a cyst or tumour which is non-cancerous (doesn’t spread or invade other tissues). The opposite of this is malignant (cancerous).


Persisting for a long time or recurring e.g. high blood pressure, diabetes or arthritis.


Become progressively worse.


The ability to understand another person's feelings and experience.

Health literacy

Individuals having enough knowledge, understanding, skills and confidence to use health information. This includes computer and numerical literacy and the ability to interpret graphs. It affects people’s ability to engage with self-care, share medical history, navigate the healthcare system, fill in forms, understand probability and risk and evaluate the quality of information online.

Holistic care

Considering all the physical, psychological and social factors potentially impacting a person’s health.


Protecting peoples’ health, wellbeing and human rights, and enabling them to live free from harm, abuse and neglect.


Sorting patients based on need of medical treatment.

Utilitarian Approach

Assesses an action in terms of its consequences or outcomes, i.e., the net benefits and costs to all stakeholders on an individual level. It strives to achieve the greatest good for the greatest number while creating the least amount of harm or preventing the greatest amount of suffering.

Tissue Engineering

Biomedical engineering discipline integrating biology with engineering to create tissues or cellular products outside the body (ex vivo) or to use the gained knowledge to better manage the repair of tissues within the body (in vivo).


Tissue is organizational level between cells and organ and is an ensemble of similar cells and their extracellular matrix from the same organ that carry out a specific function.

Stem cells

Stem cells are cells that can differentiate into other types of cells (multipotent), and can also divide in self-renewal to produce more of the same type of stem cells.


A disease of the muscle in which the muscle fibres do not function properly.

Force (N)

A force is a push or pull upon an object resulting from the object's interaction with another object.

Joint Congruence

The measurement of the contact between the two joint surfaces.


The meniscus is a piece of cartilage that provides a cushion between your femur (thighbone) and tibia (shinbone). There are two menisci in each knee joint.

Superior & Inferior

Superior – Towards the head / above

Inferior – Away from the head / below

Anterior & Posterior

Anterior – Towards the / The front of body

Posterior – Near the / The back of body

Medial & Lateral

Medial – Towards the midline of the body/ structure

Lateral – Away from the midline of the body/structure

Ipsilateral & Contralateral

Ipsilateral – On the same side of the body

Contralateral – On the opposite side of the body

Proximal & Distal

Proximal – situated nearer to the centre of the body or the point of attachment to the trunk (Core body)

Distal – Further from the centre of the body or the point of attachment to the trunk (Core body)

Superficial & Deep

Superficial – structures situated or occurring on the skin or immediately beneath it.

Deep – structures closer to the interior center of the body

Flexion & Extension
& Hyper - Extension

Flexion – Movement that decreases the angle between articulating bones (Bending an arm or a leg)

Extension – an unbending movement around a joint in a limb that increases the angle between the bones of the limb at the joint. Opposite of Flexion

Hyper – extension: Extension beyond ‘normal’ extension

Superficial & Deep

Superficial – structures situated or occurring on the skin or immediately beneath it.

Deep – structures closer to the interior center of the body.

Abduction & Adduction

Abduction – movement away from the midline

Adduction – movement towards the midline

Medial Rotation & Lateral Rotation

Medial Rotation – Anterior surface rotates towards midline

Lateral Rotation – Anterior surface rotates away from midline

Inversion & Eversion

Inversion – Sole of foot turns medially

Eversion – Sole of foot turns laterally

Dorsiflexion & Plantarflexion

Dorsiflexion – Bending foot upwards

Plantarflexion – Bending floor down

Supination & Pronation

Supination – Forearm turns palm facing upward

Pronation – Forearm turns palm facing downward


Cells that synthesise bone.


Osteoblasts that have become trapped in bone.


Cells that aid bone reabsorption by breaking down bone tissue.


The science and engineering of interacting surfaces in relative motion.


The unevenness of a surface, given by a materials roughness and ruggedness.

Wolff's law

This law states that your bones will adapt based on the stress or demands placed on them. When you work your muscles, they put stress on your bones. In response, your bone tissue remodels and becomes stronger.


The design and production of materials, structures, and systems that are modelled based on biological beings and processes.

Young's modulus

A measure of elasticity, equal to the ratio between the stress on a material and the strain produced.


An artificial substitute for a missing part, such as an eye, limb, or tooth, used for functional or cosmetic reasons, or both.


The existence of a chemical element in two or more forms, which may differ in the arrangement of atoms in crystalline solids or in the occurrence of molecules that contain different numbers of atoms. Example: Graphite, charcoal, and diamond are all allotropes of carbon.

Amphipathic (Molecules)

A molecule, especially a protein, having both hydrophilic and hydrophobic parts and therefore exhibiting both of these behaviours.


The quality of being toxic to cells.

The Tyndall effect

The light scattering by particles when light passes through a colloid (e.g gel), or very fine particles like dust or air.

Mie scattering

A type of Tyndall effect which occurs when the diameters of atmospheric particulates are similar to the wavelengths of the scattered light.

Crepuscular Rays

Crepuscular rays or "God rays" are sunbeams that originate when the sun is below the horizon, during twilight hours.

Rayleigh scattering

The scattering of light by particles in a medium, without change in wavelength. It accounts, for example, for the blue colour of the sky, since blue light is scattered slightly more efficiently than red.

Photoelectric effect

The photoelectric effect is the emission of electrons when electromagnetic radiation, such as light, hits a material. Electrons emitted in this manner are called photoelectrons.